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Full text of "Mathura A District Memoir"

FABGAKA MAH/-BAH.                                               397
And ih$ long grass and reeds, produced in the same localities, are valuable as
materials for making ropes, mats, and articles of wicker-work.
The number of distinct estates is 216, of which 18 are enjoyed rent-free by
religions persons or establishments, and 89 are in the hands of sole proprietors,
as distinct from village communities.   The castes that muster strongest are Jats
and Brahmans, who together constitute one-half of the entire population.   The
great temples at Baladeva and Grokul, though they have also endowments in
land, derive the principal part of their income from the voluntary offerings of
pilgrims and devotees.   Of secular proprietors the wealthiest—as in most other
parts of the country now-a-days—are navi homines of the baniya class, who have
laid the foundation of their fortune in trade.   First in this order coin© Mahi
JM and Janaki Prasad  of Raya.    Their  ancestor,  Hand Ram, w*i8 a petty
trader of that town, who realized large profits by the sal© of grain in the famine
of 1838,   In partnership with him. was his brother, Magni Lai, who, having no
natural heir, adopted Ms sister's grandson, Janaki Prasad.   In 1840 Nand Bam
died, and as of his two sons, Mahi Lai and Bhajan Lai, the latter was already
deceased, leaving issue, Jamuna Prasad and Manohar Lai, he left his estate in
three equal shares, the one to his son, the second to his two grandsons, and
the third to his adopted nephew.    For some years the property was helc as a
joint undivided estate 5 but in 1866 an agreement was executed contitating thre6
estates in severalty \ J&naM Prasad's share being the village of Bhadaawam,
Mahi LaPs that of Arua, both in Mat; and Jamuna Prasad and Manohar IM\
ten smaller villages in the Mahi-ban pargana.   As the main object of this agree-
ment was simply to get rid of Janaki Prasad, the others continued to hold their
two-thirds of the origin®! estate as one property.   But after a lime, thinking
that the discrepancy between recorded rights and actual possession might lead
to diihcnlties, in 1870 they ©xecuted another deed, by which the two shares were
again amalgamated.   This joint estate, including business returns, wag assessed
for purposes of the inc&to© tax3 as yielding an annual profit of Us. 16,086 ;
fee Mah4-ban villages, in which they are the largest shareholders, being Acharu^
Chiira-Haneij Dhaku, Gonga, Nftgal, and Thaaa Amar Sink    Some misunder-
standing having 8ubse€|tiesLtly arisen, the uncle and nephew liave again divided
their joint estate.   Their kinsman Janaki Prasad, ia addition to his Mat vilkg©
of Bhadanwara, has shares ia €rain», Kakarari and 15 other villages in MaM-
ban, from which he derives a net income of Bs. 14,260.
Of much the same, or jaerhaps raiher lower, social standing are a faoodfy
of S&BMh Brfhmaana &i Jagadis-pnig money-lenders by
100